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    Lung cancer is increasing in incidence particularly among women, associated with a global change in smoking habits. Steroid hormones, particularly oestrogen exert an influence on tumour progression in tissues where their target receptor is expressed. Oestrogen receptor, particularly ERβ is highly expressed in the lung and becomes more highly expressed in lung carcinogenesis. Genes involved in the process of lung carcinoma progression and signalling cascades linked to invasion and angiogenesis are modulated by oestrogen receptors. This review intends to collate recently published evidence identifying a role for oestrogen in the initiation and progression of lung carcinoma and how these two processes are differentially affected by circulating oestrogens both in women and in men. Circulating oestrogens may be a significant risk factor in women's susceptibility to lung carcinoma and also provide an additional approach for more targeted therapy. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Chi Sun Liau, Praveena Mogan, Warren Thomas. Oestrogen actions contribute to female gender-specific risks in the development of lung carcinoma. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2021 Apr;208:105786

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    PMID: 33189851

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