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Cerebral damage after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a primary cause of death. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is very important during these situations. This study aimed to explore the role of metformin in protecting brain endoplasmic reticulum post CA/CPR. Male SD rats (n = 132) were treated with 6-min CA-posted asphyxia and sham surgery. Before CA/CPR, metformin (200 mg/kg/day) or a vehicle (0.9% saline) were administered randomly for two weeks. The neurological deficit scores were assessed 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after CA/CPR, and the rat brains were analyzed by Western blotting and qRT-PCR. Apoptosis was detected by the TUNEL assay according to the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Oxidative stress and ERS-related protein expression were also investigated. The Western blotting and qRT-PCR results revealed that the resuscitated animals had time-dependent elevated GRP78 and XBP1 levels compared with the sham operative rats. Moreover, our results showed that the rats treated with metformin had increased neurological deficit scores (NDS), an improved seven-day survival rate, decreased cell apoptosis within the hippocampus CA1 area, and less oxidative stress compared with the CA/CPR group. Furthermore, metformin inhibited the mRNA and protein expressions of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in the CA/CPR rat model. We confirmed that CA/CPR can induce ERS-related apoptosis and oxidative stress in the brain; moreover, inhibiting ERS-related proteins GRP78 and XBP1 with metformin might attenuate cerebral injury post CA/CPR. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Libo Chuan, Xin Huang, Chuming Fan, Shiyuan Wen, Xiaohua Yang, Jingrong Wang, Jingyu Ren, Jin Ru, Li Ding. Metformin ameliorates brain damage caused by cardiopulmonary resuscitation via targeting endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins GRP78 and XBP1. European journal of pharmacology. 2021 Jan 15;891:173716

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PMID: 33197442

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