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    Kilovoltage (kV) x-rays are most commonly used for diagnostic imaging due to their sensitivity to tissue composition. In radiation therapy (RT), due to their fast attenuation, kV x-rays are typically only used for superficial irradiation of skin cancer and for intra-operative RT (IORT). Recently, however, a number of kV RT techniques have emerged. In this review article, we provide a brief overview of the use of kV x-rays for RT. Various kV x-ray source technologies suitable for RT, such as conventional x-ray tubes as well as novel x-ray sources, are first described. This x-ray source section is then followed by a section on their implementation in terms of clinical, veterinary and preclinical applications. Specifically, IORT, superficial RT and dose enhancement with iodine and gold nanoparticles, as well as microbeam RT and FLASH RT are discussed in this context. Then, a number of kV x-ray RT applications in modeling and proof-of-principle stages, such as breast external beam RT with rotational sources, kilovoltage arc therapy and the BriXS Compton pulsed x-ray sources, are reviewed. Finally, some clinical and economic considerations for the development of kV RT techniques are discussed. Copyright © 2020 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Dylan Y Breitkreutz, Michael D Weil, Magdalena Bazalova-Carter. External beam radiation therapy with kilovoltage x-rays. Physica medica : PM : an international journal devoted to the applications of physics to medicine and biology : official journal of the Italian Association of Biomedical Physics (AIFB). 2020 Nov;79:103-112

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    PMID: 33221545

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