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The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential teratogenic and toxic effect of the herbicide 2,4-D (DMA® 806) on bullfrog embryos and tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus). We used the FETAX (Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus) assay for embryos, and for tadpoles, we used acute (96 h) and chronic (49 days) toxicity tests and evaluated aspects of healthiness, hematology, and histopathology. The LC50-144h (Median Lethal Concentration), EC50-144h (Median Effective Concentration), MCIG (Minimum Concentration to Inhibit Growth) and TI (Teratogenic Index) for embryos were 792 mg/L, 593 mg/L, 150 mg/L of 2,4-D (DMA) and 1.34, respectively. For tadpoles, the LC50-96h was 700 mg/L of 2,4-D (DMA) and chronic test indicated an inflammatory process and erythrocytosis (with possible polycythemia), with consequent reduction of the spleen. This demonstrates physiological stress probably due to dehydration, which can be proven by the gill tufts widening intercellular space and gill tuft fusions. We also found injuries to the kidneys and skin of the animals even in the lowest concentration tested. Our results indicated that this pesticide is minimally teratogenic and has a low toxicity on L. catesbeianus embryos and tadpoles, but it can inhibit embryo growth in concentrations lower than those tested in this study. We hypothesized that the herbicide 2,4-D (DMA® 806) may be a respiratory allergen for L. catesbeianus tadpoles and recommend precautionary measures for prolonged exposure of aquatic organisms to this pesticide. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cristina Viriato, Fernanda Menezes França, Diego Sales Santos, Adriana Sacioto Marcantonio, Cintia Badaró-Pedroso, Cláudia Maris Ferreira. Evaluation of the potential teratogenic and toxic effect of the herbicide 2,4-D (DMA® 806) in bullfrog embryos and tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus). Chemosphere. 2021 Mar;266:129018

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PMID: 33250224

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