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    Fibrinogen is a large glycoprotein, synthesized primarily in the liver. With a normal plasma concentration of 1.5-3.5 g/L, fibrinogen is the most abundant blood coagulation factor. The final stage of blood clot formation is the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin, the polymeric scaffold for blood clots that stop bleeding (a protective reaction called hemostasis) or obstruct blood vessels (pathological thrombosis). Fibrin is a viscoelastic polymer and the structural and mechanical properties of the fibrin scaffold determine its effectiveness in hemostasis and the development and outcome of thrombotic complications. Fibrin polymerization comprises a number of consecutive reactions, each affecting the ultimate 3D porous network structure. The physical properties of fibrin clots are determined by structural features at the individual fibrin molecule, fibrin fiber, network, and whole clot levels and are among the most important functional characteristics, enabling the blood clot to withstand arterial blood flow, platelet-driven clot contraction, and other dynamic forces. This chapter describes the molecular structure of fibrinogen, the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the mechanical properties of fibrin as well as its structural origins and lastly provides evidence for the role of altered fibrin clot properties in both thrombosis and bleeding.


    Rustem I Litvinov, Marlien Pieters, Zelda de Lange-Loots, John W Weisel. Fibrinogen and Fibrin. Sub-cellular biochemistry. 2021;96:471-501

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    PMID: 33252741

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