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    Copper homeostasis is crucial for various cellular processes. The balance between nutritional and toxic copper levels is maintained through the regulation of its uptake, distribution, and detoxification via antagonistic actions of two transcription factors, Ace1 and Mac1. Ace1 responds to toxic copper levels by transcriptionally regulating detoxification genes CUP1 and CRS5 Cup1 metallothionein confers protection against toxic copper levels. CUP1 gene regulation is a multifactorial event requiring Ace1, TATA-binding protein (TBP), chromatin remodeler, acetyltransferase (Spt10), and histones. However, the role of histone H3 residues has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the role of the H3 tail in CUP1 transcriptional regulation, we screened the library of histone mutants in copper stress. We identified mutations in H3 (K23Q, K27R, K36Q, Δ5-16, Δ13-16, Δ13-28, Δ25-28, Δ28-31, and Δ29-32) that reduce CUP1 expression. We detected reduced Ace1 occupancy across the CUP1 promoter in K23Q, K36Q, Δ5-16, Δ13-28, Δ25-28, and Δ28-31 mutations correlating with the reduced CUP1 transcription. The majority of these mutations affect TBP occupancy at the CUP1 promoter, augmenting the CUP1 transcription defect. Additionally, some mutants displayed cytosolic protein aggregation upon copper stress. Altogether, our data establish previously unidentified residues of the H3 N-terminal tail and their modifications in CUP1 regulation. Copyright © 2021 American Society for Microbiology.


    Sakshi Singh, Rakesh Kumar Sahu, Raghuvir Singh Tomar. The N-Terminal Tail of Histone H3 Regulates Copper Homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular and cellular biology. 2021 Jan 25;41(2)

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    PMID: 33257505

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