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    The innate and adaptive immune systems play an important role in the development of cardiac diseases. Therefore, it has become critical to identify molecules that can modulate inflammation in the injured heart. In this regard, activation of the cholinergic system in animal models of heart disease has been shown to exert protective actions that include immunomodulation of cardiac inflammation. In this mini-review, we briefly present our current understanding on the cardiac cellular sources of acetylcholine (ACh) (neuronal vs. nonneuronal), followed by a discussion on its contribution to the regulation of inflammatory cells. Although the mechanism behind ACh-mediated protection still remains to be fully elucidated, the beneficial immunomodulatory role of the cholinergic signaling emerges as a potential key regulator of cardiac inflammation.


    Cibele Rocha-Resende, Aristóbolo Mendes da Silva, Marco A M Prado, Silvia Guatimosim. Protective and anti-inflammatory effects of acetylcholine in the heart. American journal of physiology. Cell physiology. 2021 Feb 01;320(2):C155-C161

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    PMID: 33264077

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