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Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ad) have shown promising results in the therapeutic treatment of cancer. Ad type 5 (Ad5) is the most extensively utilized Ad type. However, several limitations exist to using Ad5 as an oncolytic virus, including high levels of anti-Ad5 neutralizing antibodies in the population, binding of the Ad5 hexon to blood coagulation factor X leading to liver sequestration and toxicity, and reduced expression of the primary receptor CAR on many tumors. Here, we use in vitro methods to explore the oncolytic potential of four alternative Ad types (Ad26, 28, 45, and 48) belonging to the species D Ad subgroup and developed replication-competent species D Ads expressing the human sodium iodide symporter protein (hNIS) for combination radiovirotherapy. We evaluated the species D Ad vectors transduction, replication, cytotoxicity, and gene expression in six different cancer cell lines. Species D Ads showed the greatest transduction and cytotoxic killing in the SKBR3 breast cancer cells, followed by 293, A549, and HepG2 cells, however the cytotoxicity was less than the wild type Ad5 virus. In contrast, species D Ads showed limited transduction and cytotoxicity in the Hela and SKOV3 cancer cell lines. These species D Ad vectors also successfully expressed the hNIS gene during infection leading to increased iodide uptake in multiple cancer cell lines. These results, the low seroprevalence of anti-species D antibodies, and the lack of binding to blood coagulation FX, support further exploration of species D Ads as alternative oncolytic adenoviruses against multiple types of cancer.

Citation

Brianna L Bullard, Brigette N Corder, Eric A Weaver. Species D Adenoviruses as Oncolytic Viral Vectors. Viruses. 2020 Dec 06;12(12)

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PMID: 33291224

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