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    Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (iNPH)-the leading cause of reversible dementia in aging-is characterized by ventriculomegaly and gait, cognitive and urinary impairments. Despite its high prevalence estimated at 6% among the elderlies, iNPH remains underdiagnosed and undertreated due to the lack of iNPH-specific diagnostic markers and limited understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms. INPH diagnosis is also complicated by the frequent occurrence of comorbidities, the most common one being Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we investigate the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging dynamics of 26 iNPH patients before and after a CSF tap test, and of 48 normal older adults. Alzheimer's pathology was evaluated by CSF biomarkers. We show that the interactions between the default mode, and the executive-control, salience and attention networks are impaired in iNPH, explain gait and executive disturbances in patients, and are not driven by AD-pathology. In particular, AD molecular biomarkers are associated with functional changes distinct from iNPH functional alterations. Finally, we demonstrate a partial normalization of brain dynamics 24 hr after a CSF tap test, indicating functional plasticity mechanisms. We conclude that functional changes involving the default mode cross-network interactions reflect iNPH pathophysiological mechanisms and track treatment response, possibly contributing to iNPH differential diagnosis and better clinical management. © 2020 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.


    Alessandra Griffa, Giulia Bommarito, Frédéric Assal, François R Herrmann, Dimitri Van De Ville, Gilles Allali. Dynamic functional networks in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: Alterations and reversibility by CSF tap test. Human brain mapping. 2021 Apr 01;42(5):1485-1502

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    PMID: 33296129

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