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Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inheritable form of intellectual disability. FMR1, the gene responsible for FXS, is located on human chromosome Xq27.3 and contains a stretch of CGG trinucleotide repeats in its 5' untranslated region. FXS is caused by CGG repeats that expand beyond 200, resulting in FMR1 silencing via promoter hypermethylation. The molecular mechanism underlying CGG repeat expansion, a fundamental cause of FXS, remains poorly understood, partly due to a lack of experimental systems. Accumulated evidence indicates that the large chromosomal region flanking a CGG repeat is critical for repeat dynamics. In the present study, we isolated and introduced whole human X chromosomes from healthy, FXS premutation carriers, or FXS patients who carried disease condition-associated CGG repeat lengths, into mouse A9 cells via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. The CGG repeat length-associated methylation status and human FMR1 expression in these monochromosomal hybrid cells mimicked those in humans. Thus, this set of A9 cells containing CGG repeats from three different origins (FXS-A9 panel) may provide a valuable resource for investigating a series of genetic and epigenetic CGG repeat dynamics during FXS pathogenesis. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Yuji Nakayama, Kaori Adachi, Nofirifumi Shioda, Shoya Maeta, Eiji Nanba, Hiroyuki Kugoh. Establishment of FXS-A9 panel with a single human X chromosome from fragile X syndrome-associated individual. Experimental cell research. 2021 Jan 15;398(2):112419

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PMID: 33296661

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