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Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) enables assessment and quantification of morphological and functional parameters of the heart, including chamber size and function, diameters of the aorta and pulmonary arteries, flow and myocardial relaxation times. Knowledge of reference ranges ("normal values") for quantitative CMR is crucial to interpretation of results and to distinguish normal from disease. Compared to the previous version of this review published in 2015, we present updated and expanded reference values for morphological and functional CMR parameters of the cardiovascular system based on the peer-reviewed literature and current CMR techniques. Further, databases and references for deep learning methods are included.


Nadine Kawel-Boehm, Scott J Hetzel, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Gabriella Captur, Christopher J Francois, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Michael Salerno, Shawn D Teague, Emanuela Valsangiacomo-Buechel, Rob J van der Geest, David A Bluemke. Reference ranges ("normal values") for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in adults and children: 2020 update. Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. 2020 Dec 14;22(1):87

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PMID: 33308262

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