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In definitive radiation therapy for prostate cancer, the SpaceOAR® System, a hydrogel spacer, is widely used to decrease the irradiated dose and toxicity of rectum. On the other hand, periprostatic abscesses formation and rectal perforation are known as rare adverse effects of SpaceOAR. Nevertheless, there is a lack of reports clarifying the association between aggravation of abscesses and radiation therapy, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is effective for a peri-SpaceOAR abscess and rectal perforation. We report a case of a 78-year-old high-risk prostate cancer patient. After SpaceOAR insertion into the correct space, he started to receive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). He developed a fever, perineal pain and frequent urination after the completion of EBRT, and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a peri-SpaceOAR abscess. Scheduled brachytherapy was postponed, administration of antibiotics and opioid via intravenous drip was commenced, and transperineal drainage was performed. After the alleviation of the abscess, additional EBRT instead of brachytherapy was performed with MRI-guided radiation therapy (MRgRT). On the last day of the MRgRT, perineal pain reoccurred, and MRI and colonoscopy detected the rectal perforation. He received an intravenous antibiotics drip and HBOT, and fully recovered from the rectal perforation. Our report indicates that EBRT can lead to a severe rectum complication by causing inflammation for patients with a peri-SpaceOAR abscess. Furthermore, HBOT was effective for the peri-SpaceOAR abscess and rectal perforation associated with EBRT.


Tairo Kashihara, Koji Inaba, Motokiyo Komiyama, Hiroki Nakayama, Kotaro Iijima, Shie Nishioka, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Nao Kikkawa, Yuko Kubo, Satoshi Shima, Satoshi Nakamura, Ayaka Takahashi, Kana Takahashi, Kae Okuma, Naoya Murakami, Hiroshi Igaki, Yuko Nakayama, Arinobu Fukunaga, Yoshiyuki Matsui, Hiroyuki Fujimoto, Jun Itami. The use of hyperbaric oxygen to treat actinic rectal fistula after SpaceOAR use and radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a case report. BMC urology. 2020 Dec 14;20(1):196

PMID: 33317509

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