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The aim of this study was to investigate how carbohydrates (glucose or sucrose) affect the characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) planktonic and biofilm in vitro. For this study, E. faecalis was cultured in tryptone-yeast extract broth with 0% glucose + 0% sucrose, 0.5% glucose, 1% glucose, 0.5% sucrose, or 1% sucrose. Viability of E. faecalis was examined by colony forming unit counting assays. Biofilm formation was assessed by measuring extracellular DNA (eDNA), a component of the biofilm matrix. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to investigate the expression of virulence-associated genes. Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis, and crystal violet colorimetric assay were conducted to study E. faecalis biofilms. E. faecalis showed the highest viability and eDNA levels in 1% sucrose medium in biofilms. The result of qRT-PCR showed that the virulence-associated genes expressed highest in 1% sucrose-grown biofilms and in 1% glucose-grown planktonic cultures. E. faecalis showed highly aggregated biofilms and higher bacteria and exopolysaccharide (EPS) bio-volume in sucrose than in 0% glucose + 0% sucrose or glucose. The results indicate that the production of eDNA and EPS and expression of virulence-associated genes in E. faecalis are affected by the concentration of carbohydrates in biofilm or planktonic culture.


Mi-Ah Kim, Vinicius Rosa, Kyung-San Min. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis in different culture conditions. Scientific reports. 2020 Dec 14;10(1):21867

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PMID: 33318537

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