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    Structure properties of flocs (size, fractal dimension (Df), etc.) have a high impact on coagulation efficiency. In this work, the influences of three different additives (ferric salt (Fe), phosphate (P), and citric acid (CA)) on coagulation process/efficiency were investigated. Results showed that a small amount of extra Fe can facilitate the growth of Al flocs by providing more 'active sites'. Although zeta potential and Df showed a limited change, the average floc size increased apparently and the increment was more obvious when Fe was added after the formation of the flocs. In contrast, P addition during the rapid mixing period will decrease the final average floc size, while the influence is less significant when P was added after the growth of the flocs. In terms of CA, a more striking negative effect on the growth ability of the flocs was observed compared to P. The strong complexing/coordination interactions between CA and aluminum hydroxide is the main reason behind the influence. CA also significantly decreased the Df value of the flocs compared to P, and Df showed a comparatively higher decrease when P or CA was added during the rapid mixing stage compared to the addition after the flocs formation. These results indicated that the addition of CA or P during the rapid mixing stage 'inactivated' or occupied more 'active sites' on the preliminarily formed Al NPs during the hydrolysis process, and therefore presented stronger impact on the morphology/size of the formed flocs. Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    Citation

    Yufei Li, Lei Xu, Tong Shi, Wenzheng Yu. The influence of various additives on coagulation process at different dosing point: From a perspective of structure properties. Journal of environmental sciences (China). 2021 Mar;101:168-176

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    PMID: 33334513

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