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    In this work, valorisation pathways of brewers' spent grains (BSG) towards biofuels production under the biorefinery concept were studied utilizing experimental data that provide a common base for straightforward comparison. The dehydration and the recovery of used oil, bioethanol and biogas from BSG were studied. The process units involved were thoroughly investigated and optimized. The oil extraction efficiency reached up to 70% using solid-liquid extraction process with hexane as solvent. The optimal ethanol yield achieved was 45% after the application of acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis with CellicCTec2 and fermentation with S. Cerevisiae. As far as biogas potential is concerned, the raw BSG, defatted BSG and stillage presented values equal to 379 ± 19, 235 ± 21 and 168 ± 39 mL biogas/g for respectively. Through the combination of the proposed schemes, three biorefinery scenarios were set up able to produce biodiesel, bioethanol and/or biogas. Material flow diagrams were set up in order to assess these schemes. Given that BSG could ensure 'green' energy production in the range of 4.5-7.0 million MJ/y if the European BSG potential is fully valorised, BSG could substantially contribute to the biofuel energy strategy. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Michael Kavalopoulos, Vasileia Stoumpou, Andreas Christofi, Sofia Mai, Elli Maria Barampouti, Konstantinos Moustakas, Dimitris Malamis, Maria Loizidou. Sustainable valorisation pathways mitigating environmental pollution from brewers' spent grains. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987). 2021 Feb 01;270:116069

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    PMID: 33338956

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