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    Harderian gland (HG) plays an important role in the physiological adaptation to terrestrial life, however, the mechanisms underlying the changes in the structure and function of the HG during aging remain unclear. This study investigated autophagy and apoptosis in the HG of striped dwarf hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) of different ages (sub-adult, adult and aged groups) in both males and females. The results showed that LC3II/LC3I and puncta of LC3 were significantly higher in adult and aged individuals than sub-adults, whereas P62 decreased with age. Bax/bcl2was the highest in sub-adults of male and female individuals. Caspase3 activity was the highest in sub-adults of male and female individuals, and the citrate synthase activity was highest in sub-adults of females. ATP synthase, citrate synthase, dynamin-related protein 1 and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) were the highest in sub-adults of females. Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase were the highest in the aged group, and those of gonadotropin-releasing hormone was the highest in the adult group. LC3II/LC3I, P62, Drp1, Fis, and bax/bcl2 were higher in males than that in females. These results suggest that apoptosis mainly affects growth and development in the HG, whereas autophagy affects aging. The difference of the HG weight and mitochondrial function between sexes is mainly related to the apoptosis. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Xiao-Tong Kong, Zhe Wang, Jun-Jie Mou, Chang-Sheng Li, Hui-Liang Xue, Ming Wu, Lei Chen, Jin-Hui Xu, Lai-Xiang Xu. Change on apoptosis, autophagy and mitochondria of the Harderian gland in Cricetulus barabensis during age. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology. 2021 Apr-May;253:110547

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    PMID: 33340652

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