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    No methodology is available to distinguish truly reduced myocardial flow reserve (MFR) in positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (PET MPI) from seemingly impaired MFR due to inadequate adenosine response. The adenosine-induced splenic switch-off (SSO) sign has been proposed as a potential marker for adequate adenosine response in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). We assessed the feasibility of detecting SSO in nitrogen-13 ammonia PET MPI using SSO in CMR as the standard of reference. Fifty patients underwent simultaneous CMR and PET MPI on a hybrid PET/MR device with co-injection of a gadolinium-based contrast agent and nitrogen-13 ammonia during rest and adenosine-induced stress. In CMR, SSO was assessed visually (positive vs negative SSO) and quantitatively by calculating the ratio of the peak signal intensity of the spleen during stress over rest (SIR). In PET MPI, the splenic signal activity ratio (SAR) was calculated as the maximal standard uptake value of the spleen during stress over rest. The median SIR was significantly lower in patients with positive versus negative SSO in CMR (0.57 [IQR 0.49 to 0.62] vs 0.89 [IQR 0.76 to 0.98]; P < .001). Similarly, median SAR in PET MPI was significantly lower in patients with positive versus negative SSO (0.40 [IQR 0.32 to 0.45] vs 0.80 [IQR 0.47 to 0.98]; P < .001). Similarly to CMR, SSO can be detected in nitrogen-13 ammonia PET MPI. This might help distinguish adenosine non-responders from patients with truly impaired MFR due to microvascular dysfunction or multivessel coronary artery disease. © 2020. The Author(s).


    Adam Bakula, Dimitri Patriki, Elia von Felten, Georgios Benetos, Aleksandra Sustar, Dominik C Benz, Muriel Wiedemann-Buser, Valerie Treyer, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Christoph Gräni, Catherine Gebhard, Philipp A Kaufmann, Ronny R Buechel, Tobias A Fuchs. Splenic switch-off as a novel marker for adenosine response in nitrogen-13 ammonia PET myocardial perfusion imaging: Cross-validation against CMR using a hybrid PET/MR device. Journal of nuclear cardiology : official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. 2022 Jun;29(3):1205-1214

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    PMID: 33354759

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