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Introduction: Selective antagonists of Endothelin-1 receptors (ERA) have been tested in diabetic and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). The SONAR trial (Study Of diabetic Nephropathy with AtRasentan) was the first randomized, phase 3, study assessing the long-term effect of ERA on CKD progression.Areas covered: We examine the ERA effects in proteinuric CKD. We discuss the results of the main clinical studies on ERA in CKD and offer an opinion on the findings of SONAR study and future perspectives in this field. We searched in PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases for including experimental and clinical studies that evaluated ERA in proteinuric CKD.Expert opinion: The SONAR study demonstrated that ERA confers protection against risk for CKD progression. This trial stimulated clinical research on ERA, to expand the therapeutic opportunities in CKD patients. Two novel phase 3 studies testing ERA in patients with glomerular disease are ongoing. Within the context of personalized medicine, we think it would be relevant to evaluate the effect of multiple treatments, including ERA, in proteinuric CKD patients. Testing ERA in clinical trials of novel design will also help at identifying the patients who would more benefit from these drugs.


Michele Provenzano, Michele Andreucci, Carlo Garofalo, Roberto Minutolo, Raffaele Serra, Luca De Nicola. Selective endothelin A receptor antagonism in patients with proteinuric chronic kidney disease. Expert opinion on investigational drugs. 2021 Mar;30(3):253-262

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PMID: 33356648

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