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The general objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3 intramammary antibiotic interventions using 2 commercially available antibiotics with narrow- or broad-spectrum activity on cure rates of clinical mastitis (CM) caused by gram-positive bacteria. We also compared the efficacy of treatment protocols, including a negative control, on outcomes at the cow and mammary quarter level. Before the onset of the study, 5,987 animals more than 12 mo old were randomly preassigned to 1 of 4 protocols in the event of gram-positive CM (except for Staphylococcus aureus and Trueperella pyogenes) during lactation: 3 infusions with 62.5 mg of amoxicillin performed 12 h apart (AMOX-L); 5 infusions once a day with 62.5 mg of amoxicillin (AMOX-EL); 5 infusions once a day with 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride (CEFT-L); or negative control, no treatment performed until 5 d after diagnosis (NEG-CTR). Randomization was performed to preassign 90% of cows to one of the antibiotic protocols (30% in each group) and 10% to the negative control. A total of 696 quarter cases of CM met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated in the study. Quarter-level outcomes were assessed based on 5 milk samples collected up to 14 ± 3 d following enrollment (i.e., first day of treatment), whereas variables at the cow level [composite somatic cell count (SCC), milk production, and survival in the herd] were assessed up to 90 d after CM diagnosis. Streptococcus uberis, followed by Streptococcus dysgalactiae, were the main causes of gram-positive CM. Overall, clinical cure was higher for CEFT-L than for AMOX-EL, and no difference was observed between CEFT-L and AMOX-L. Likewise, no significant differences were detected on overall bacteriological cure, although some treatment effects were observed at the species level. Compared with antibiotic-treated groups, quarters assigned to NEG-CTR had higher counts of colony-forming units (cfu), 16S rRNA gene copy numbers, and Streptococcus relative abundance (RA) until d 5 after enrollment. Quarters treated with AMOX-L had higher cfu counts on d 5, 8, and 14 after enrollment compared with the other antibiotic protocols. In addition, the RA of Streptococcus spp. was higher on d 14 after enrollment for AMOX-treated quarters compared with the CEFT-L group. Linear score of SCC was higher for AMOX-treated cows than for CEFT-L in the first test day after CM. However, cows assigned to AMOX-L had higher milk production than those submitted to the AMOX-EL and CEFT-L protocols. In conclusion, the 2-d protocol with 3 intramammary infusions of amoxicillin (narrow-spectrum antimicrobial) had similar overall clinical and bacteriological cures as 5 administrations (once a day) with ceftiofur hydrochloride (wide spectrum). No significant difference was observed on CM recurrence and cow survival. However, quarters treated with 5-d protocols were more effective at reducing milk cfu counts than quarters in the AMOX-L protocol. In addition, lower Streptococcus spp. RA was observed in ceftiofur-treated quarters compared with the amoxicillin protocols at d 14 after CM diagnosis. Based on results of microbiome and bacterial load (quantitative PCR and cfu count) up to 5 d after CM diagnosis, antibiotic use remains an indispensable strategy for treatment of CM caused by gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2021 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


T Tomazi, M Sumnicht, A C C H Tomazi, J C C Silva, L Bringhenti, L M Duarte, M M M Silva, M X Rodrigues, R C Bicalho. Negatively controlled, randomized clinical trial comparing different antimicrobial interventions for treatment of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive pathogens. Journal of dairy science. 2021 Mar;104(3):3364-3385

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PMID: 33358798

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