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    3 % hypertonic saline (HS) is a hyperosmolar agent often used to treat elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). However, the resultant hyperchloremia is associated with adverse outcomes in certain patient populations. In this study, HS solution buffered with sodium acetate (HSwSA) is used as an alternative to standard 3 % formulations to reduce overall chloride exposure. Our objectives are to establish whether this alternative agent - with reduced chloride content - is similar to standard 3 % HS in maintaining hyperosmolarity and investigate its effects on hyperchloremia. A retrospective chart review was conducted from August 1, 2014 to August 1, 2017 on patients receiving hypertonic therapies for ICP management. Patients were categorized into three groups, those that received: (1) 3 % HS for at least 72 h, (2) HSwSA for at least 72 h, or (3) were switched from 3 % HS within 72 h of initiating therapy to HSwSA for at least 72 h. The average increase in serum osmolality after 72 h of therapy was 21.1 moSm/kg for those only on 3 % HS and 20.3 mOsm/kg for those only on HSwSA. Serum chloride levels after 24 h decreased on average by 2.5 mEq/L after switching from 3% HS to HSwSA and stayed below baseline, whereas matched patients only receiving 3% HS on average had serum chloride levels increase 4.3 mEq/L after 24 h and continued to rise. Hyperchloremia has been associated with decreased renal perfusion, increasing the risk of acute kidney injury and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Compared to standard 3% HS, our findings suggest an alternative hyperosmolar therapy with less chloride maintains similar hyperosmolarity while reducing overall chloride exposure. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Devin N Holden, Francine H Yung, Pouya Entezami. Hypertonic saline buffered with sodium acetate for intracranial pressure management. Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 2021 Feb;201:106435

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    PMID: 33373834

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