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Hyperglycaemia causes pancreatic β-cells to release insulin that then attaches to a specific expression of receptor isoform and reverses high glucose concentrations. It is well known that insulin is capable of initiating insulin-receptor substrate (IRS)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) signaling pathways in target cells; such as liver, adipose tissues, and muscles. However, recent discoveries indicate that many other pathways, such as the Hedgehog (Hh) and growth factor-stimulating Wingless-related integration (Wnt) signaling pathways; are activated in hyperglycaemia as well. Although these two pathways are traditionally thought to have a decisive role in cellular growth and differentiation only, recent reports show that they are involved in regulating cellular homeostasis and energy balance. While insulin-activated IRS/PI3K/PKB pathway cascades are primarily known to reduce glucose production, it was recently discovered to increase the Hh signaling pathway's stability, thereby activating the PI3K/PKB/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling pathway. The Hh signaling pathway not only plays a role in lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, diabetes-related complications, but crosstalks with the Wnt signaling pathway resulting in improved insulin sensitivity and decrease inflammatory response in diabetes. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Khaled Benchoula, Ishwar S Parhar, Eng Hwa Wong. The crosstalk of hedgehog, PI3K and Wnt pathways in diabetes. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. 2021 Feb 15;698:108743

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PMID: 33382998

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