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A vast amount of evidence indicates that bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are widely distributed in the environment since these compounds are mass-produced for the manufacture of plastics and plasticizers. These compounds belong to a large group of substances termed endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). It is well known that humans and living organisms are unavoidably and unintentionally exposed to BPA and phthalates from food packaging materials and many other everyday products. BPA and phthalates exert their effect by interfering with hormone synthesis, bioavailability, and action, thereby altering cellular proliferation and differentiation, tissue development, and the regulation of several physiological processes. In fact, these EDC can alter fetal programming at an epigenetic level, which can be transgenerational transmitted and may be involved in the development of various chronic pathologies later in the adulthood, including metabolic, reproductive and degenerative diseases, and certain types of cancer. In this review, we describe the most recent proposed mechanisms of action of these EDC and offer a compelling selection of experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies, which show evidence of how exposure to these pollutants affects our health during development, and their association with a wide range of reproductive, metabolic and neurological diseases, as well as hormone-related cancers. We stress the importance of concern in the general population and the urgent need for the medical health care system to closely monitor EDC levels in the population due to unavoidable and involuntary exposure to these pollutants and their impact on human health. Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.


A Martínez-Ibarra, L D Martínez-Razo, K MacDonald-Ramos, M Morales-Pacheco, E R Vázquez-Martínez, M López-López, M Rodríguez Dorantes, M Cerbón. Multisystemic alterations in humans induced by bisphenol A and phthalates: Experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies reveal the need to change health policies. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987). 2021 Feb 15;271:116380

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PMID: 33387779

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