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    Phototoxicity is a toxic response elicited by topically applied or systemically administered photoreactive chemicals after exposure to light and can be broadly categorized into photoirritation, photoallergy, photogenotoxicity, and photocarcinogenicity. The need in the 21st century for accurate evaluation of photosafety has led to the publication of a number of guidelines from government agencies in Europe and the U.S.A. as well as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). In this review, we first discuss the mechanisms of phototoxicity and how they can be evaluated. We then discuss the state of the art and challenges now faced in photosafety evaluation of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Additionally, we describe the latest developments in OECD test guidelines (TG) for assessing photosafety, including revisions to the in vitro 3T3 neutral red uptake (NRU) phototoxicity test (TG 432) and the newly adopted reactive oxigen species (ROS) assay (TG 495). We will emphasize the importance of selecting the most appropriate means of evaluation with reference to the latest guidelines and other legal criteria for conducting photosafety evaluation.


    Satomi Onoue, Hirokazu Kouzuki, Akemi Toyoda, Osamu Fueki, Kazuhiro Hosoi, Hajime Kojima, Takao Ashikaga, Hiroshi Onodera. Current Issues in Photosafety Evaluation]. Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 2021;141(1):111-124

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    PMID: 33390438

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