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Treating the gingival epithelial Ca9-22 cell with butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacteria within mature dental plaque, induces necrotic cellular death. In this report, it was examined whether SCFA-mediated cellular death is accompanied by a release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In addition, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the release of DAMPs was evaluated. Human gingival epithelial Ca9-22 cells were treated with butyrate or propionate. The amounts of dead cells were then measured using SYTOX-green dye. Released DAMPs were detected by western blot. The role of ROS scavengers, ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine, on DAMP-release was evaluated. Dose and time-dependent induction of Ca9-22 cell death was observed during butyrate and propionate treatments. This was accompanied by the release of DAMPs. Ascorbic acid or N-acetylcysteine reduced cellular death and inhibited DAMP-release induced by exposure to butyrate or propionate. These data collectively suggest that SCFA-induced death of gingival epithelial Ca9-22 cells and accompanying release of DAMPs are dependent on ROS.


Yui Fujiwara, Takahisa Murofushi, Ryosuke Koshi, Yoshikazu Mikami, Hiromasa Tsuda. Reactive oxygen species-dependent release of damage-associated molecular patterns from human gingival epithelial Ca9-22 cells during butyrate or propionate exposure. Journal of oral science. 2021 Mar 31;63(2):195-197

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PMID: 33390461

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