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Tissue engineering is a rapidly developing field with many potential clinical applications in tissue and organ regeneration. The development of a mature and stable vasculature within these engineered tissues (ET) remains a significant obstacle. Currently, several growth factors (GFs) have been identified to play key roles within in vivo angiogenesis, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), FGF and angiopoietins. In this article we attempt to build on in vivo principles to review the single, dual and multiple GF release systems and their effects on promoting angiogenesis. We conclude that multiple GF release systems offer superior results compared to single and dual systems with more stable, mature and larger vessels produced. However, with more complex release systems this raises other problems such as increased cost and significant GF-GF interactions. Upstream regulators and pericyte-coated scaffolds could provide viable alternative to circumnavigate these issues.


Nicolas Pavlos Omorphos, Chuanyu Gao, Sian See Tan, Miljyot Singh Sangha. Understanding angiogenesis and the role of angiogenic growth factors in the vascularisation of engineered tissues. Molecular biology reports. 2021 Jan;48(1):941-950

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PMID: 33393005

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