Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

Echium arenarium Guss is a Mediterranean plant traditionally used in healing skin wound and it was reported exhibiting potent antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiparasitic activities. However, antitumoral activities of this plant have not yet been explored. Here we investigated for the first time, root (EARE) and aerial part (EAAPE) extracts of E. arenarium Guss to examine cytotoxicity and apoptosis activation pathway on U266 human multiple myeloma (MM) cell line. We demonstrated that EARE and EAAPE decreased U266 cell viability in a dose dependent manner. Based on 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, EARE was significantly two times more efficient (IC50 value 41 μg/ml) than EAAPE (IC50 value 82 μg/ml) considering 48 h of treatment. Furthermore, after 24 h of exposure to 100 μg/ml of EARE or EAAPE, cell cycle showed remarkable increase in sub-G1 population and a decrease of U266 cells proportion in G1 phase. In addition, EARE increased cell percentage in S phase. Moreover, analysis revealed that EAAPE or EARE induced apoptosis of U266 cells after 24 h of treatment. Interestingly, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 3/7 were demonstrated in treated U266 cells. Phytochemical analysis of E. arenarium extracts showed that EARE exhibited the highest content of total phenolic content. Interestingly, six phenolic compounds were identified. Myricitrin was the major compound in EARE, followed by luteolin 7-O-glucoside, resorcinol, polydatin, Trans-hydroxycinnamic acid, and hyperoside. These findings proved that an intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway probably mediated the apoptotic effects of E. arenarium Guss extracts on U266 cells, and this will suggest several action plans to treat MM. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Inès Limam, Fatma Ben Aissa-Fennira, Rim Essid, Ahlem Chahbi, Sarra Kefi, Khaoula Mkadmini, Salem Elkahoui, Mohamed Abdelkarim. Hydromethanolic root and aerial part extracts from Echium arenarium Guss suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells through mitochondrial pathway. Environmental toxicology. 2021 May;36(5):874-886

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 33393729

View Full Text