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Cl--pump rhodopsin is the second discovered microbial rhodopsin. Although its physiological role has not been fully clarified, its functional mechanism has been studied as a model for anion transporters. After the success of neural activation by channel rhodopsin, the first Cl--pump halorhodopsin (HR) had become widely used as a neural silencer. The emergence of artificial and natural anion channel rhodopsins lowered the importance of HRs. However, the longer absorption maxima of approximately 585-600 nm for HRs are still advantageous for applications in mammalian brains and collaborations with neural activators possessing shorter absorption maxima. In this chapter, the variation and functional mechanisms of Cl- pumps are summarized. After the discovery of HR, Cl--pump rhodopsins were confined to only extremely halophilic haloarchaea. However, after 2014, two Cl--pump groups were newly discovered in marine and terrestrial bacteria. These Cl- pumps are phylogenetically distinct from HRs and have unique characteristics. In particular, the most recently identified Cl- pump has close similarity with the H+ pump bacteriorhodopsin and was converted into the H+ pump by a single amino acid replacement.


Takashi Kikukawa. Functional Mechanism of Cl--Pump Rhodopsin and Its Conversion into H+ Pump. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2021;1293:55-71

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PMID: 33398807

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