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    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is the most significant pest of California almonds. Direct feeding on the kernel by the larvae causes reductions in salable crop, crop quality, and exportability. Pheromone mating disruption (MD) targeting navel orangeworm is a relatively new technique with the potential to improve management. In 2017, we used replicated ~16-ha plots to compare the efficacy of four commercial MD systems (CheckMate, Cidetrak, Isomate, and Semios) for their relative impacts on the number of navel orangeworm in monitoring traps and crop quality. From 2017 to 2018, we conducted nine direct comparison studies in 16 to 40 ha almond orchards to compare conventional pest management programs to programs incorporating pheromone MD systems. Across all studies, MD reduced male moth captures in pheromone traps by >94%. In the efficacy study, use of mating disruption led to 35% and 53% reductions in kernel damage in Nonpareil and pollinizer cultivars, respectively, and an average increase in crop value of $370 ha-1. In the direct comparison, kernel damage to Nonpareil and pollinizer cultivars was reduced by 65% and 78%, respectively, resulting in an average increase in crop value of $357 ha-1. Economic analyses showed that increases in crop returns exceeded the costs of implementing MD systems with the break-even point ranging from 0.86 to 1.06% of kernel damage. These results suggest that adding MD to an existing navel orangeworm management program is a cost-effective way to reduce damage while promoting sustainable pest management practices. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:


    David R Haviland, Jhalendra P Rijal, Stephanie M Rill, Bradley S Higbee, Charles S Burks, Chelsea A Gordon. Management of Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Using Four Commercial Mating Disruption Systems in California Almonds. Journal of economic entomology. 2021 Feb 09;114(1):238-247

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    PMID: 33399207

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