Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

There is a high level of interest in identifying metabolites of endogenously produced or dietary compounds generated by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota, and determining the functions of these metabolites in health and disease. There is a wealth of compelling evidence that the microbiota is linked with many complex chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. Macrophages are key target immune cells in atherosclerosis. A hallmark of atherosclerosis is the accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages in coronary arteries that respond to pro-atherogenic stimuli and failure of digesting lipids that contribute to foam cell formation in atherosclerotic plaques. This review illustrates the role of tryptophan-derived microbiota metabolites as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand that has immunomodulatory properties. Also, microbiota-dependent trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) metabolite production is associated with a deleterious effect that promotes atherosclerosis, and metabolite indoxyl sulfate has been shown to exacerbate atherosclerosis. Our objective in this review is to discuss the role of microbiota-derived metabolites in atherosclerosis, specifically the consequences of microbiota-induced effects of innate immunity in response to atherogenic stimuli, and how specific beneficial/detrimental metabolites impact the development of atherosclerosis by regulating chronic endotoxemic and lipotoxic inflammation.


Sahar Eshghjoo, Arul Jayaraman, Yuxiang Sun, Robert C Alaniz. Microbiota-Mediated Immune Regulation in Atherosclerosis. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2021 Jan 01;26(1)

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 33401401

View Full Text