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Infant formulas are based on milk, and the addition of simple carbohydrates as a caloric source, for infants. The carbohydrates added in infant formulas can cause a significant increase of Streptococcus mutans in the oral cavity of infants adding to their cariogenicity. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the biofilm formation in three commercially available infant formulas;which are based on milk, soy and amino acid. In vitro microbiological assay of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation in milk based, soy based and amino acid based infant formulas. Twenty-four hour-cultured S. mutans and microtiter plates were used for analysis. At microtiter plate, 190 μL of modified TSB broth containing SBF, MBF, amino acid-based infant formulas, and dairy whitener as a positive control in five dilutions (1:05, 1:10, 1:20, 1:40, and 1:80) was added into respective wells. 10 μL of cultured S. mutans was inoculated into the wells and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was measured to evaluate biofilm growth, which was read as optical densities in a spectrophotometer at 490 nm and was tabulated. Three infant formulas tested showed S. mutans biofilm growth. Minimal biofilm growth was observed in amino acid-based formula at 1:80 dilution, followed by MBF at 1:10 dilution and SBF at 1:80 dilution. Commercially available infant formulas favor S. mutans biofilm growth and can be cariogenic. Amino acid-based infant formula was found to have less S. mutans biofilm growth than MBF and SBF.


Hira Sadan, B M Shanthala, M A Zareena, George Babu, Vidhya Vijayan. In vitro evaluation of milk-based, soy-based, and amino acid-based infant formulas on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. 2020 Oct-Dec;38(4):350-354

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PMID: 33402616

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