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Profenofos is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that can enter into the aquatic ecosystem either through surface runoff or through percolation of a toxicant from the soil. In order to clarify the effect of profenofos on the developmental stages of zebrafish, the embryos were treated with serial dilutions of profenofos (0%, 10%, 25%, and 50% of LC50). Embryos were treated with profenofos for 7 days or until hatching. The toxic endpoints assessed include hatching time, survival, malformation, and heartbeats of the embryos. In a 96-h test on zebrafish embryos, the LC50 of profenofos was 0.057 mg/L. Profenofos considerably lowered survival, increased abnormalities at different ontogenetic stages, and developed malformations of different organs in a concentration-dependent fashion. The identified developmental malformations were fluid accumulation, impaired jaw, short tail, ruptured pectoral and caudal fin, curved body, thin yolk sac tube, and deformed heart. The way of looping arrangement of the heart at the early stage of embryos was significantly influenced by the higher concentration of profenofos. Heartbeat is also reduced significantly in a concentration-dependent fashion. The results show that the zebrafish are susceptible to profenofos even at lower concentrations in the initial stage. Therefore, when used in agricultural areas adjacent to the aquatic environment, endocrine-disrupting chemicals should be used in an appropriate manner.


Zakia Sultana, Mst Mansura Khan, Golam Mohammod Mostakim, Md Moniruzzaman, Md Khalilur Rahman, Md Shahjahan, M Sadiqul Islam. Studying the effects of profenofos, an endocrine disruptor, on organogenesis of zebrafish. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2021 Apr;28(16):20659-20667

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PMID: 33405136

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