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    Diflubenzuron (DFB) is a widely used insecticide to control ectoparasites in fish farming. Although therapeutic concentrations (i.e., 50 to 100 mg/L) are safe as they fail to induce mortality, they can promote tissue changes. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is a native species used for commercial production, and it remains crucial to determine underlying mechanisms to mitigate the potential effects of pathogens on productivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the transaminase profile and histopathological changes in the liver of P. mesopotamicus exposed to a DFB bath. Hence, the fish were exposed to an immersion bath containing a 70 mg/L nominal concentration of Difluchem 240 SC® (24% (m/m) DFB) for 30 (n = 10), 60 (n = 10), and 120 min (n = 10), every 24 h for 3 days. Following exposure, plasma transaminases and liver histology were analyzed. In DFB-exposed fish, levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were elevated when compared with the control at 30 and 60 min. Furthermore, liver morphology was altered based on exposure times. Compared with controls, the degree of reversible damage (degree of tissue change (DTC)) demonstrated high scores for all exposure times, with no difference between individual groups. Irreversible changes were increased in the 60 and 120-min baths. These findings highlight the impact of the therapeutic DFB concentration (i.e., 70 mg/L), revealing that 60-min and 120-min bathing induces irreversible and progressive hepatic changes.


    André Luiz N Silva, Robson Andrade Rodrigues, Mayara Schueroff Siqueira, Karine Nathiele Nogueira Farias, Karin Virgínia Kuibida, Lilian Franco-Belussi, Carlos E Fernandes. Transaminase profile and hepatic histopathological traits in Piaractus mesopotamicus exposed to insecticide Diflubenzuron. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2021 May;28(17):22002-22010

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    PMID: 33410075

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