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    Postprandial increases in gastrointestinal hormones are associated with reduced energy intake, partially through direct effects on the brain. However, it remains unknown whether the fasting levels of gastrointestinal hormones are associated with altered brain activity in response to visual food stimuli. We therefore performed a whole-brain regression cross-sectional analysis to assess the association between fasting brain activations according to functional magnetic resonance imaging, performed during viewing of highly desirable versus less desirable food images, with fasting levels of five gastrointestinal hormones (glucagon-like peptide [GLP]-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin, glicentin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide [GIP]) in 36 subjects with obesity. We observed that fasting blood levels of GIP were inversely associated with the activation of attention-related areas (visual cortices of the occipital lobe, parietal lobe) and of oxyntomodulin and glicentin with reward-related areas (insula, putamen, caudate for both, and additionally orbitofrontal cortex for glicentin) and the hypothalamus when viewing highly desirable as compared to less desirable food images. Future studies are needed to confirm whether fasting levels of oxyntomodulin, glicentin and GIP are associated with the activation of brain areas involved in appetite regulation and with energy intake in people with obesity. © 2021 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Nikolaos Perakakis, Olivia M Farr, Christos S Mantzoros. Fasting oxyntomodulin, glicentin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels are associated with activation of reward- and attention-related brain centres in response to visual food cues in adults with obesity: A cross-sectional functional MRI study. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. 2021 May;23(5):1202-1207

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    PMID: 33417264

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