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Hyperparathyroid crisis is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of severe calcium intoxication. Parathyroidectomy is the only curative method for hyperparathyroid crisis. Several case reports and case series have been published on the medical and surgical treatments for hyperparathyroid crisis, however, few reports have focused on the associated perioperative anesthetic management. A 48-year-old Chinese woman presented with a 2-week history of nausea and vomiting and complained of mental status alteration including confusion and agitation in the 24 hours prior to her admission. She denied any history of past illness. Laboratory tests showed severe hypercalcemia crisis with a serum calcium level of 5.21 mmol/L and a serum intact parathyroid hormone level of > 5000 pg/mL. The diagnosis was hyperparathyroid crisis, acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, rhabdomyolysis, infection, and shock. She underwent initial management with aggressive intravenous fluid resuscitation, loop diuretic treatment, vitamin D supplement, intravenous bisphosphonates, and calcitonin therapy. However, her condition worsened, and she was transferred to the operating theater for a parathyroidectomy under general anesthesia. She was under general anesthesia and monitored with electrocardiogram, pulse oxygen saturation, continuous arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure and nasopharyngeal temperature. Cardiac output and stroke volume variation were monitored from the FloTrac system. After liberal fluid rehydration, circulatory support, cooling treatment and calcium supplement after tumor removal, her unstable vital signs gradually improved. After meticulous anesthetic management by the anesthesiologist and complete tumor resection by the surgeon, she survived this fatal disease. The patients was discharged on postoperative day 37 without any sequelae. Patients with hyperparathyroid crisis should undergo a thorough preoperative evaluation. Difficult airway, fluid depletion, multiple organ dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and concomitant diseases are the primary challenges in anesthetic management. After tumor removal, the serum calcium level should be monitored closely and calcium should be supplemented in a timely manner to prevent serious complications. Copyright © 2021 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


Hao Kong, Zhen Zhang, Hong Zhang. Anesthetic considerations in hyperparathyroid crisis: A case report. Medicine. 2021 Jan 08;100(1):e24216

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PMID: 33429815

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