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    Choosing pollution control instrument is an important environmental policy decision. Carbon taxes and subsidies for emissions reductions are two commonly used environmental policies. In practice, the government may be restricted to use only one policy instrument. In this paper, we compare the social welfare effect between policies of a carbon tax and a subsidy. We show that as the marginal environmental damage of the high carbon product increases, the control instrument should change from a subsidy policy to a carbon tax policy. It also turns out that Bertrand competition does not always incur a higher social welfare than Cournot competition when the government intervenes with a pollution control policy. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE part of Springer Nature.


    Jeff Guo, Rongbing Huang. A carbon tax or a subsidy? Policy choice when a green firm competes with a high carbon emitter. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2022 Feb;29(9):12845-12852

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    PMID: 33442803

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