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Genus Zephyranthes consists of economically important plant species due to their high ornamental value and presence of valuable bioactive compounds. However, this genus propagates by asexual division only which gives slow propagation rate. Plant tissue culture has the potential to provide efficient techniques for rapid multiplication and genetic improvement of the genus. In this work, a dual in vitro regeneration system through callus mediated shoot regeneration and direct shoot regeneration in species Zephyranthes candida, Zephyranthes grandiflora and Zephyranthes citrina was investigated. Bulb, leaf and root explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium amended with different plant growth regulators (PGR's) viz. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3 -thiadiazol-5-ylurea (TDZ), 6-Furfuryl- aminopurine (KIN) alone or in combinations for callus induction and regeneration. Only bulb explants showed callus induction and regeneration response on different PGR combinations with a varied response in callus induction percentage, callus color and callus texture. Creamish compact callus (CC) was induced on 2 mg L[Formula: see text] 2,4-D, brown friable callus (BF) on 2 mg L[Formula: see text] NAA + 1 mg L[Formula: see text] BAP and green friable callus (GF) callus on 1 mg L[Formula: see text] KIN + 3 mg L[Formula: see text] NAA. The maximum shoot multiplication from different callus types (indirect organogenesis) was achieved on 2 mg L[Formula: see text] BAP alone without combinations. Bulb explants of Z. grandiflora induced maximum callus induction percentage (86.4%) and shoot regeneration percentage (83.5%) with the maximum 08 shoots per 150 mg callus mass. The induction and regeneration response was followed in the order of Z. grandiflora > Z. candida > Z. citrina. Similarly, maximum direct organogenesis from bulb explants was obtained in Z. grandiflora (93.3%) followed by Z. candida (91.5%) and Z. citrina (90.4%) on 3 mg L[Formula: see text] TDZ amended MS media. Adventitious root induction was achieved on 2 mg L[Formula: see text] IBA with a maximum of 8 roots per shoot. The in vitro raised plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the field with 85% survival efficiency. The genome size (2C DNA content) of the field-grown plants and in vitro regenerated plants, evaluated through flow cytometry technique, were similar and showed no ploidy changes. An efficient mass propagation protocol was established for obtaining plants with unaltered genome size in the three species of Zephyranthes.


Rukaya Syeed, A Mujib, Moien Qadir Malik, Jyoti Mamgain, Bushra Ejaz, Basit Gulzar, Nadia Zafar. Mass propagation through direct and indirect organogenesis in three species of genus Zephyranthes and ploidy assessment of regenerants through flow cytometry. Molecular biology reports. 2021 Jan;48(1):513-526

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PMID: 33442831

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