Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

  • apoptosis (1)
  • brain (1)
  • female (1)
  • forebrain (1)
  • gyrus cinguli (1)
  • neonates (1)
  • neurons (4)
  • newborn (1)
  • NKCC1 (2)
  • NMDARs (2)
  • period (1)
  • rats (4)
  • Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

    Experimental studies have indicated that prolonged ketamine exposure in neonates at anesthetic doses causes neuronal apoptosis, which contributes to long-term impairments of learning and memory later in life. The neuronal excitotoxicity mediated by compensatory upregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) is proposed to be the underlying mechanism. However, this view does not convincingly explain why excitotoxicity-related apoptotic injury develops selectively in immature neurons. We proposed that the GABAA receptors (GABAARs)-mediated excitatory synaptic signaling due to high expression of the Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC1), occurring during the early neuronal development period, plays a distinct role in the susceptibility of immature neurons to ketamine-induced injury. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the forebrain slices containing the anterior cingulate cortex, we found that in vivo repeated ketamine administration significantly induced neuronal hyperexcitability in neonatal, but not adolescent, rats. Such hyperexcitability was accompanied by the increase both in GABAAR- and NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmissions. An interference with the NKCC1 by bumetanide treatment completely reversed these enhanced effects of ketamine exposure and blocked GABAAR-mediated postsynaptic current activity. Thus, these findings were significant as they showed, for the first time, that GABAAR-mediated excitatory action may contribute distinctly to neuronal excitotoxic effects of ketamine on immature neurons in the developing brain. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Ruirui Wang, Qing Lin. Prolonged ketamine exposure induces enhanced excitatory GABAergic synaptic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex of neonatal rats. Neuroscience letters. 2021 Feb 06;745:135647

    Expand section icon Mesh Tags

    Expand section icon Substances

    PMID: 33444673

    View Full Text