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    Rubella containing vaccines (RCV) prevent rubella virus infection and subsequent congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). To update the evidence on immunogenicity, duration of protection, effectiveness and safety of RCV, we conducted a systematic literature review. We searched EMBASE and SCOPUS, using keywords for rubella vaccine in combination with immunogenicity (seroconversion and seropositivity), duration of protection, efficacy/effectiveness, and safety. Original research papers involving at least one dose of RCV (at any age), published between 1-1-2010 and 17-5-2019 were included. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were performed. Quality of included studies was assessed using GRADE methodology. We included 36 papers (32 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 4 observational studies) on immunogenicity (RA27/3 strain) in children and adolescent girls, 14 papers (5 RCTs and 9 observational studies) on duration of protection, one paper on vaccine effectiveness (VE) (BRDII strain), and 74 studies on safety, including three on safety in pregnancy. Meta-analysis of immunogenicity data showed 99% seroconversion (95% CI: 98-99%) after a single dose of RCV in children, independent of co-administration with other vaccines. Seroconversion after RCV1 below 9 months of age (BRDII strain, at 8 months) was 93% (95% CI: 92-95%). For duration of protection, the included studies showed a seropositivity of 88%-100% measured 1-20 years after one or two RCV doses. The single study on VE of BRDII strain, reported 100% VE after one and two doses. Among 34,332 individuals participating in the RCTs, 140 severe adverse events (SAEs) were reported as possibly related to RCV. Among the case reports on SAEs, the association with RCV was confirmed in one report (on fulminant encephalitis). Among 3,000 pregnant women who were inadvertently vaccinated, no SAEs were reported. One and two doses of RCV are highly immunogenic for a long period of time, effective in preventing rubella and CRS, and safe. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Jossy van den Boogaard, Brechje de Gier, Priscila de Oliveira Bressane Lima, Shalini Desai, Hester E de Melker, Susan J M Hahné, Irene K Veldhuijzen. Immunogenicity, duration of protection, effectiveness and safety of rubella containing vaccines: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2021 Feb 05;39(6):889-900

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    PMID: 33454135

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