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    The family of K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+-exchangers, NCKX, are important mediators of cellular Ca2+ efflux, particularly in neurons associated with sensory transduction. The NCKX family comprises five proteins, NCKX1-5, each being the product of a different SLC24 gene. NCKX4 (SLC24A4) has been found to have a critical role in termination and adaptation of visual and olfactory signals, melanocortin-dependent satiety signaling, and the maturation of dental enamel. To explore mechanisms that might influence the temporal control of NCKX4 activity, a yeast two-hybrid system was used to search for protein interaction partners. We identified calmodulin as a partner for NCKX4 and confirmed the interaction using glutathione-S-transferase fusion pull-down. Calmodulin binding to NCKX4 was demonstrated in extracts from mouse brain and in transfected HEK293 cells. Calmodulin bound in a Ca2+-dependent manner to a motif present in the central cytosolic loop of NCKX4 and was abolished by the double-mutant I328D/F334D. When cotransfected in HEK293 cells, calmodulin bound to NCKX4 under basal conditions and induced a ∼2.5-fold increase in NCKX4 abundance, but did not influence either cellular location or basal activity. When purinergic stimulation of NCKX4 was examined in these cells, coexpression of wild-type calmodulin, but not a Ca2+ binding-deficient calmodulin mutant, suppressed NCKX4 activation in a time-dependent manner. We propose that Ca2+ binding to calmodulin prepositioned on NCKX4 induces a slow conformational rearrangement that interferes with purinergic stimulation of the exchanger, possibly by obscuring T331, a previously identified potential protein kinase C site. Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Stephanie Thibodeau, Weidong Yang, Sunita Sharma, Jonathan Lytton. Calmodulin binds and modulates K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+-exchanger isoform 4, NCKX4. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2020 Nov 23;296:100092

    PMID: 33460927

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