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Actin re-organization and degradation of extracellular matrix by metalloproteases (MMPs) facilitate formation of cellular protrusions that are required for cell proliferation and migration. We find that Zn2+ activation of the Gq-coupled receptor ZnR/GPR39 controls these processes by regulating K+/Cl- co-transporter KCC3, which modulates cell volume. Silencing of KCC3 expression or activity reverses ZnR/GPR39 enhancement of cell proliferation, migration and invasion through Matrigel. Activation of ZnR/GPR39 recruits KCC3 into F-actin rich membrane protrusions, suggesting that it can locally control volume changes. Immunofluorescence analysis indicates that Zn2+ activation of ZnR/GPR39 and KCC3 are required to enhance formation of F-actin stress fibers and cellular protrusions. In addition, ZnR/GPR39 upregulation of KCC3-dependent transport increases the activity of matrix metalloproteases MMP2 and MMP9. Our study establishes a mechanism in which ZnR/GPR39 orchestrates localization and activation of KCC3, formation of F-actin rich cell protrusions and activation of MMPs, and thereby controls cell proliferation and migration. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Moumita Chakraborty, Hila Asraf, Israel Sekler, Michal Hershfinkel. ZnR/GPR39 controls cell migration by orchestrating recruitment of KCC3 into protrusions, re-organization of actin and activation of MMP. Cell calcium. 2021 Mar;94:102330

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PMID: 33465674

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