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    The present work was conducted to assess the effects of arsenic (As, 1000 µM), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, 10 µM) and reduced glutathione (GSH, 500 µM) on Isatis cappadocica. As treatment decreased plant growth and fresh and dry weight of shoot and root and also enhanced the accumulation of As. As stress also enhanced the oxidative stress biomarkers, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. However, the application of GSH decreased the content of H2O2 and MDA by 43% and 55%, respectively, as compared to As treatment. The antioxidants like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) also enhanced with As stress. NADPH oxidase inhibitor, the DPI, enhances the effect of As toxicity by increasing the accumulation of As, H2O2, MDA. DPI also enhances the activity of antioxidant enzymes except GR and GST, However, the application GSH increased the plant growth and biomass yield, decreases accumulation of As, H2O2 and MDA content in As as well as As + DPI treated plants. The thiols content [total thiol (TT), non-protein thiol (NPT) protein thiols (PT), and glutathione (GSH)] were decreased in the As + DPI treatment but supplementation of GSH enhanced them. Novelty statement: The study reveals the beneficial role of GSH in mitigating the deleterious effects of Arsenic toxicity through its active involvement in the antioxidant metabolism, thiol synthesis and osmolyte accumulation. Apart from As, We provided the plants NADPH oxidase inhibitor, the diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), which boosts the As toxicity. At present, there is dearth of information pertaining to the effects of DPI on plants growth and their responses under heavy metal stress.GSH application reversed the effect of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) under As stress preventing the oxidative damage to biomolecules through the modulation of different antioxidant enzymes. The application of GSH for As stressed soil could be a sustainable approach for crop production.


    Zahra Souri, Naser Karimi, Parvaiz Ahmad. The effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and glutathione (GSH) on Isatis cappadocica, under Arsenic (As) toxicity. International journal of phytoremediation. 2021;23(9):945-957

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    PMID: 33472408

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