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    The flanking region variants of nonbinary SNPs and phenotype-informative SNPs (piSNPs) have been observed, which may greatly improve the discriminative ability after constituting microhaplotype. In this study, 30 microhaplotype loci based on the nonbinary SNPs and piSNPs (shown to be related to phenotypes such as hair and eye color) were selected. Genotyping were conducted on 100 unrelated northern Han Chinese, and the 26 populations from the 1000 Genome Project were also included for comparison of populations differentiation. The simulated study was conducted for evaluating the efficiency of kinship testing. These 30 microhaplotype loci we selected had good polymorphism, with a mean effective number of alleles (Ae) of 3.46. The average Ae increase was 1.27 compared with the target SNPs. The populations from the five regions worldwide could also be distinguished using these loci. The results of kinship testing showed that these microhaplotype loci had the similar ability as 15 STR loci of AmpFlSTRR IdentifilerR PCR Amplification Kit to identify the biological parent and a stronger ability to exclude the nonbiological parents. So, these 30 microhaplotype loci may be multifunctional for forensic application, including the ability of personal identification and kinship testing equivalent to 15 STR loci, and the power of ancestry inference for distinguishing the main intercontinental population. Moreover, our selected phenotypic microhaplotype loci may theoretically have phenotype prediction capabilities. But the phenotype prediction efficiency of these phenotypic microhaplotype loci may be worse than that of piSNPs and the detailed prediction accuracy of different populations needs to be further studied. © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


    Dan Wen, Shule Sun, Ying Liu, Jienan Li, Zedeng Yang, Aliye Kureshi, Yan Fu, Henan Li, Bowei Jiang, Chuan Jin, Jifeng Cai, Lagabaiyila Zha. Considering the flanking region variants of nonbinary SNP and phenotype-informative SNP to constitute 30 microhaplotype loci for increasing the discriminative ability of forensic applications. Electrophoresis. 2021 May;42(9-10):1115-1126

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    PMID: 33483973

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