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    Autophagy is a self-destructing mechanism of cell via lysosomal degradation, which helps to degrade/destroy hazardous substances, proteins, degenerating organelles and recycling nutrients. It plays an important role is cellular homeostasis and regulates internal environment of cell, moreover, when needed causes non-apoptotic programmed death of cell. Autophagy has been observed as one of the major factors in parasite clearance in leishmaniasis. Being an intra-cellular pathogen, the cell mediated response is the only alternative for adaptive immunity against Leishmania in host. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL12 and TNFα generate Th2 response which helps in active phagocytosis of parasite whereas an anti-inflammatory cytokine like IL10 mediate parasite promotion by blocking autophagic pathways and inhibiting phagocytic actions. In the present chapter, through systems biology approach, we are trying to decipher the role of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine in autophagy during leishmanial infection. TLR2/6 mediated signaling stimulated by LPG produces many pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL12, TNFα and IL6 etc. Among them TNFα, causes the activation of PI3P through a series of events, which results in activation of autophagic machinery, whereas, IL10 through ATG9 and mTOR activation, inhibits autophagy. The mathematical modeling of these pathways shows that, ATG9-PI3P act as a negative feedback loop in autophagic machinery of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Vrushali Guhe, Bhavnita Soni, Prajakta Ingale, Shailza Singh. Autophagy proteins and its homeostasis in cellular environment. Advances in protein chemistry and structural biology. 2021;123:73-93

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    PMID: 33485489

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