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Residual neuromuscular blockade is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative respiratory complications. The REsidual neuromuscular block Prediction Score (REPS) identifies patients at high risk for residual neuromuscular blockade after surgery. A total of 101,510 adults undergoing noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia from October 2005 to December 2018 at a tertiary care center in Massachusetts were analyzed for the primary outcome of postoperative respiratory complications (invasive mechanical ventilation requirement within 7 postoperative days or immediate postextubation desaturation [oxygen saturation {Spo2} <90%] within 10 minutes). The primary objective was to assess the association between the REPS and respiratory complications. The secondary objective was to compare REPS and train-of-four (TOF) ratio <0.90 on the strength of their association with respiratory complications. A high REPS (≥4) was associated with an increase in odds of respiratory complications (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.06-1.21]; P < .001). In 6224 cases with available TOF ratio measurements, a low TOF ratio (<0.9) was associated with respiratory complications (adjusted OR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.11-1.85]; P = .006), whereas a high REPS was not (adjusted OR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.74-1.23]; P = .73) (P = .018 for comparison between ORs). The REPS may be implemented as a screening tool to encourage clinicians to use quantitative neuromuscular monitoring in patients at risk of residual neuromuscular blockade. A positive REPS should be followed by a quantitative assessment of the TOF ratio. Copyright © 2021 International Anesthesia Research Society.


Maria D Patrocínio, Denys Shay, Maíra I Rudolph, Peter Santer, Stephanie D Grabitz, Xinling Xu, Sarah Nabel, Somnath Bose, Matthias Eikermann. REsidual Neuromuscular Block Prediction Score Versus Train-of-Four Ratio and Respiratory Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2021 Sep 01;133(3):610-619

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PMID: 33497061

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