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Triphenyltin (TPT) is a widely used pesticide that is highly toxic to a variety of organisms, including humans, and is a potential contributor to environmental pollution. The present study was conducted to evaluate the oxidative stress and immunotoxicity induced by TPT in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and the protective effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS). Goldfish (mean weight of 13.3 ± 0.2 g) were randomly divided into six groups with three replicates: (G1) the control group, (G2) the 10 ng/L TPT group, (G3) the 0.4% FOS group, (G4) the 10 ng/L TPT + 0.4% FOS group, (G5) the 0.8% FOS group, and (G6) the 10 ng/L TPT + 0.8% FOS group. The results showed that 10 ng/L TPT induced oxidative stress and significantly decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the liver and the gene expression of SOD, GPx, metallothionein (MT), and peroxiredoxin-4 (Prdx-4). The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the liver were significantly increased in the TPT-treated group. Exposure to 10 ng/L TPT in water induced immune suppression and significantly decreased the activities of immune enzymes, such as lysozyme, myeloperoxidase (MPO), alternative complement (ACH50), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), in the serum. TPT could stimulate the fish to generate large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, including increased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and nitric oxide (NO) levels and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and NF-κB mRNA expression. However, TPT-induced toxicity was significantly ameliorated in the groups treated with FOS, and FOS partly prevented alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of antioxidant- and ROS scavenger-related genes. In addition, TPT-induced immune toxicity was significantly ameliorated in the groups treated with FOS. FOS markedly suppressed TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and NO production and TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA expression in the TPT-treated groups. The study indicated that TPT-induced oxidative stress may play a critical role in inhibiting immunity. However, FOS administration attenuates TPT-induced oxidative stress and immune suppression in goldfish. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Chunnuan Zhang, Junhui Wang, Qian Qi, Li Yang, Ping Sun, Xiaoyu Yuan. Modulatory effect of fructooligosaccharide against triphenyltin-induced oxidative stress and immune suppression in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2021 Apr 01;212:111966

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PMID: 33513483

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