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Colletotrichum spp. cause devastating diseases in agricultural crops, including fruit crops. They can differ in host plant and plant organ specificity and even in fungicide sensitivity. In strawberry, members of the C. gloeosporioides species complex (referred to as C. gloeosporioides) primarily cause crown rot and those of the C. acutatum species complex (referred to as C. acutatum) primarily cause fruit rot. Fludioxonil is registered for use (in combination with cyprodinil; Switch 62.5WG in the US) in strawberry against anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum spp. In this study we examined the sensitivity of C. gloeosporioides (C. fructicola and C. siamense) and C. acutatum (C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae) isolates from different hosts and different geographical locations in the US to fludioxonil and examined possible mechanisms of inherent fungicide tolerance. The dose response to fludioxonil of C. gloeosporioides isolates (including 4 isolates of C. theobromicola) revealed about 70% inhibition of mycelial growth at 1 mg/L that was maintained at 10 mg/L and 100 mg/L and lead to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values >100 mg/L. In contrast, mycelial growth of C. acutatum isolates was completely inhibited at 1 mg/L. C. gloeosporioides isolates were also significantly less sensitive to iprodione. An investigation into possible mechanisms of C. gloeosporioides isolates tolerance to fludioxonil and iprodione revealed no evidence of OS-1 gene involvement. Isolates of both species complexes were equally sensitive to salt stress based on mycelial growth inhibition on potato dextrose agar amended with 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl. In addition, orthologous amino acid alterations in OS-1 previously linked to fludioxonil resistance in Botrytis cinerea were not found in C. gloeosporioides or C. acutatum isolates. This study also showed limited in vitro inhibitory activity of cyprodinil against isolates of both species complexes (MIC values >100 mg/L) and unveils a potential weakness of the fludioxonil+cyprodinil premixture marketed as Switch 62.5WG against C. gloeosporioides species complexes. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Guido Schnabel, Qin Tan, Verena Schneider, Hideo Ishii. Inherent tolerance of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides to fludioxonil. Pesticide biochemistry and physiology. 2021 Feb;172:104767

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PMID: 33518054

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