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Despite improvement in short-term outcomes after intestinal transplantation in the last 20 years, long-term rates of graft attrition and patient survival remain unchanged, with worse outcomes compared with other solid organ transplants. This review investigates the multiple causes of late graft loss, including chronic rejection, infection, graft-versus-host disease, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder and postsurgical complications. New insights into immunology of the intestine and evolution of immunosuppression, as well as review of current persistent causes of late graft loss, shed light on findings that may help improve long-term intestinal allograft survival. Although intestinal transplantation remains a life-saving intervention with significant advancements since its inception, further understanding of mechanisms of injury is needed to improve long-term outcomes and prevent late intestinal graft loss. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Tanyaporn Kaenkumchorn, Danielle Wendel, M Cristina Pacheco, Simon P Horslen. Late graft loss after intestinal transplantation. Current opinion in organ transplantation. 2021 Apr 01;26(2):220-228

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PMID: 33528223

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