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    Vitamin D Deficiency in Sports Abstract. A deficiency in vitamin D is very common in the general population as well as in athletes. The aim of this overview is to assess the level of knowledge about the importance of vitamin D for athletes. A deficiency in vitamin D is present in up to 90 % of athletes. Risk groups are young athletes, female athletes, athletes with a limitation such as paraplegia, vegetarians, athletes with a resorption disorder such as celiac disease, athletes training and competing indoors (e.g. ice hockey, basketball, boxing, rhythmic gymnastics), and older athletes. Dark skin pigmentation, the use of sunscreen, the time of day of the training (early morning, late evening) and the geographical location influence the risk for a deficiency in vitamin D. Exposure to the sun and a balanced diet are often not enough to prevent a vitamin D deficiency.


    Beat Knechtle, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Pantelis T Nikolaidis. Vitamin D Deficiency in Sports]. Praxis. 2021 Feb;110(2):94-104

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    PMID: 33530783

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