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    Sleep disruption from causes, such as changes in lifestyle, stress from aging, family issues, or life pressures are a growing phenomenon that can lead to serious health problems. As such, sleep disorders need to be identified and addressed early on. In recent years, studies have investigated sleep patterns through body movement information collected by wristwatch-type devices or cameras. However, these methods capture only the individual's awake and sleep states and lack sufficient information to identify specific sleep stages. The aim of this study was to use a 3-axis accelerometer attached to an individual's head to capture information that can identify three specific sleep stages: rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, light sleep, and deep sleep. These stages are measured by heart rate features captured by a ballistocardiogram and body movement. The sleep experiment was conducted for two nights among eight healthy adult men. According to the leave-one-out cross-validation results, the F-scores were: awake 76.6%, REM sleep 52.7%, light sleep 78.2%, and deep sleep 67.8%. The accuracy was 74.6% for the four estimates. This proposed measurement system was able to estimate the sleep stages with high accuracy simply by using the acceleration in the individual's head.


    Motoki Yoshihi, Shima Okada, Tianyi Wang, Toshihiro Kitajima, Masaaki Makikawa. Estimating Sleep Stages Using a Head Acceleration Sensor. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland). 2021 Feb 01;21(3)

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    PMID: 33535422

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