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    Tetracyclines (TCs) are a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics having vast human, veterinary, and aquaculture applications. The continuous release of TCs residues into the environment and the inadequate removal through the conventional treatment systems result in its prevalent occurrence in soil, surface water, groundwater, and even in drinking water. As aqueous TCs contamination is the tip of the iceberg, and TCs possess good sorption capacity towards soil, sediments, sludge, and manure, it is insufficient to rely on the sorptive removal in the conventional water treatment plants. The severity of the TCs contamination is evident from the emergence of TCs resistance in a wide variety of microorganisms. This paper reviews the recent research on the TCs occurrence in the environmental matrices, fate in natural systems, toxic effects, and the removal methods. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of TCs in environmental samples and the associated technology developments are analyzed. The benefits and limitations of biochemical and physicochemical removal processes are also discussed. This work draws attention to the inevitability of proper TC sludge management. This paper also gives insight into the limitations of TCs related research and the future scope of research in environmental contamination by TCs residues. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Jaimy Scaria, K V Anupama, P V Nidheesh. Tetracyclines in the environment: An overview on the occurrence, fate, toxicity, detection, removal methods, and sludge management. The Science of the total environment. 2021 Jun 01;771:145291

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    PMID: 33545482

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